Uterine Cancer Awareness
Uterine cancer can start in different parts of the uterus. Most uterine cancers start in the inner lining of the uterus – the endometrium. This is called endometrial cancer. Most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make mucus and other fluids).
A less common form of uterine cancer is uterine sarcoma. Uterine sarcoma forms in the muscle and tissue that support the uterus.
The sooner endometrial cancer is found, the better the outcome. However, the 5-year survival rate of all endometrial cancer patients is 81.3%, according to the National Cancer Institute.
- Endometrial cancer is the 10th most common cancer in the United States.
- 772,245 women are living with endometrial cancer (2016) in the United States.
- 68,880 is the estimated number of new cases diagnosed in the United States by the end of 2019.
- When diagnosed early, the survival rate for endometrial cancer is over 95%.
- 55-64 is the age range when most women are diagnosed with endometrial cancer.
Resources and tools
Who is at risk for endometrial cancer?
A number of factors are linked to an increased risk of endometrial cancer. These include obesity, exposure to estrogens, tamoxifen use and other certain hereditary conditions. Other risk factors:
- Having endometrial hyperplasia
- Never giving birth
- Beginning menstruation before age 12
- Going through menopause after age 55
- Having a history of radiation therapy to the pelvis
- Family history, with a mother, sister or daughter who had endometrial cancer
- Family cancer syndromes: genetic predisposition
Endometrial cancer tends to run in some families, according to the American Cancer Society. Women in families who have an inherited tendency to develop Lynch syndrome, which can predispose you to developing colon cancer, are more likely to develop endometrial cancer.
Hormone balance plays a part in the development of most endometrial cancers. Many of the risk factors for endometrial cancer affect estrogen levels. Before menopause, the ovaries are the major source of the 2 main types of female hormones – estrogen and progesterone. A small amount of estrogen is made naturally in fat tissue and plays a role in endometrial cancer after menopause.
Estrogen therapy, birth control pills, the number of menstrual cycles throughout a woman's lifetime, pregnancy and other factors that may impact a woman's hormone balance can also play a role. Source: ACS
Women who have had breast cancer or ovarian cancer may have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. Another risk factor is diabetes. Women with diabetes are 4 times as likely as those who do not have diabetes to have endometrial cancer.
The risk for endometrial cancer goes up as a woman ages. Women with a high-fat diet have an increased risk of endometrial cancer, as well. Physical activity lowers the risk. Controlling weight by choosing a healthy diet and lifestyle, including exercise, can improve your overall health in addition to lowering your cancer risk.
Who is at risk for uterine sarcoma?
Only a few factors are known to change the risk of developing a uterine sarcoma. They include past pelvic radiation therapy, race and previously being diagnosed with the eye cancer retinoblastoma.
Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer
Endometrial cancer’s main symptom is unusual vaginal bleeding. This occurs in up to 90% of women. The bleeding to watch for may include:
- Changes in kind of bleeding between periods or irregular bleeding
- Any vaginal bleeding after menopause
- Pelvic pain or pressure, a lump in the pelvic area or lower belly
- Pain when urinating
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Unintentional weight loss
If any of the above symptoms are new and persist for more than 2 weeks, see your physician. To make an appointment, call 913-588-1227 or toll-free 844-323-1227.
Uterine sarcoma: Key information
Uterine sarcoma is a rare kind of cancer that forms in the uterine muscles or in tissues that support the uterus.
X-rays: Exposure to X-rays can increase the risk of uterine sarcoma.
Symptoms: Signs of uterine sarcoma include abnormal bleeding.
Diagnosis: Tests that examine the uterus are used to diagnose uterine sarcoma including:
- Pap test
- Pelvic exam
- Transvaginal ultrasound
- Endometrial biopsy